Tuesday, May 26, 2020
FOR THE SOLDIER RULES ARE RULES Allen Henry Philosophy 208 : Ethics and moral reasoning Professor Cora Moore May 28th , 2017 INTRODUCTION I will elaborate using the deontoligical ethical theory to compare it to a soldier at war duty . When it comes to just and unjust killing in the person considered a target . I will then look at the argument from a different angle and show that how deontoligicalÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦a soldier while in combat first try to resolve conflict and alleviate all threats first by peaceful matters and then use extreme violence only as a last resort . But never does he target innocent civilians for that would be unjust actions and be considered a war crime . Deontology as an ethical theory only deals with the act that one does and is concerned only with the act of that person . His duty is to not bring harm to innocent civilians a soldier is life is put in danger while engaged in war , but yet he has to develop a second nature that is insync with the deontology ethical theory . A soldier at all times must uphold his duty and treat all human beings whether enemy or his own country me n with dignity and respect . And in showing respect he must show compassion for non combatants and treating them as would one would treat himself and remain true to his duty even if his enemy or his captured prisoners of war would of returned the favor if it would had been him that was captured or an unarmed civilian . And when you apply this theory to a soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s conscience then the soldier must at all times use moral reasoning and constraints . The soldier upholds proper conduct while at war using discrimination , proportionality and necessity .Show MoreRelatedThe Ethics Of Moral Reasoning944 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesneeds to be applied called moral reasoning. It is a way that applies a reasonable means of thinking of an individual or a group of an effort to carry out a right decision morally. In doing so, it is vital to acknowledge the significance and taking actions required in making a moral decision. However, before we could start this process, it is imperative to compreh end the essence of moral reasoning and consider what approach is essential in an effective application of moral analysis. These approachesRead More Ethics and Moral Reasoning Essay2112 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesAristotles Virtue Ethics Aristotle in his virtue ethics states that a virtuous individual is someone with ideal traits. These characteristic traits normally come from an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s innate tendency but should be cultivated. After they are cultivated, these character traits supposedly become stable in an individual. Moral consequentilaists and deontologists are normally concerned with universal doctrines that can be utilized in any situation that requires moral interpretation. Unlike these theoristsRead MoreDeontology Theory : Ethics And Moral Reasoning1137 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDeontology theory-Immoral/moral behavior Jeann Henry PHI208: Ethics and Moral Reasoning (ACQ1519B) Instructor: Julie Pedersen May 21, 2015 Ã¢â¬Æ' Is it right for our society to be held for immoral behavior when it is already being displayed in our society and within the cultural areas in our lives? Right or wrong ways are always among our society, and when we are dealing with an ethical theory deontology system seems more established. This ethics theory, conducts a matter of right and wrong. This indicatesRead MoreEthics And Moral Reasoning Of The Dalai Lama930 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescertain extent are these advancements beneficial, as these improvements can as well lead to serious matters in regards to our system of ethics and moral reasoning. By being able to establish a limit on the use of these advancements, it is possible to create a balance between the benefits of the technological improvements and being able to maintain a system of global ethics. The role of genetic manipulation, cloning and selection of traits all have potential in providing humanity with assistance in makingRead MoreKant s Philosophy Of Ethics And Mora l Reasoning1432 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn his book, Ã¢â¬Å"Critique of Practical Reason,Ã¢â¬ Immanuel Kant outlines his philosophy of ethics and moral reasoning. He introduces the reader to the Fundamental Law of Pure Practical Reason in chapter one of the Analytic. The Universal Law is a categorical imperative, which states: Ã¢â¬Å"So act that the maxim of your will could always hold at the same time as a principle in a giving of universal lawÃ¢â¬ (Kant, 1993, p. 30). Like other nonconsequentialists, Kant is much more concerned with the motive behindRead MoreThe Relationship Between Religion and Ethics Essay972 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmust first understand what both ethics and morality are. As ethics is defined as the philosophical study of morality, those who study religion get their moral precepts from what they believe God says should be done. This perspective is not at all unexpected, because all religions apply a perspective on morality. Morality is defined as beliefs conce rning right and wrong, good and bad- beliefs that can include judgements, values, rules, principles, and theories. Morals are what help us guide our actionsRead MoreEthical Decision Making : Business Ethics And Social Responsibility1295 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Ethical Decision-Making DeÃ¢â¬â¢Ambre Zanders OMM640: Business Ethics and Social Responsibility (MOH1616A) Instructor: Dr. Maja Zelihic May 1, 2016 Abstract In any type of business, ethical decision-making is usually at the forefront of company operations. It shapes the foundation of a company and gives employees a moral compass as to what is expected of them ethically. Ethical-decision making prevents individuals from profiting from their own personal methods, while representingRead MoreThe Ethical Issues Involving Edward SnowdenÃ ´s Case1589 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinterpreted as right or wrong based on the circumstances and personal reasoning. The preceding interpretation is this case in every ethical quandary. Once these issues are assimilated to the affected parties we begin to understand the larger picture of morality and ethical reasoning in SnowdenÃ¢â¬â¢s case. Ethical Issues One ethical issue in SnowdenÃ¢â¬â¢s case is that if fails to take into account the autonomy of others as their own moral agent. Firstly, Snowden fails to take respect the autonomy of his colleaguesRead MoreThe Ethics Of Business Ethics Essay1097 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesResource A discusses how ethics is crucial in business. There are three key ideas used to understand this. Firstly, making ethically wrong decisions tend to cause more upset than other general mistakes as purposeful unethical actions are not as easily forgiven or forgotten. Secondly, ethics provides businesses with a broader understanding of everything to do with their business. Business ethics is effectively just business it its larger human context. Thirdly, being unethical can tarnish the publicRead MoreThe International Relations And Foreign Policies Decisions Essay1430 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe importance of Ethic in the study of the international relations and in foreign policies decisions by governments and oth ers non-states. The structure of individual estates and how they behave has been influenced by the constitution of the international system. In others words, due to the fact that states behave in an anarchy system, in which is not a high authority that protects them in case that they found themselves into international affairs with others states, it makes that states persuade
Friday, May 15, 2020
The Black Death, a medieval pandemic that was likely the bubonic plague, is generally associated with Europe. This is not surprising since it killed an estimated one-third of the European population in the 14th century. However, the Bubonic Plague actually started in Asia and devastated many areas of that continent as well. Unfortunately, the course of the pandemic in Asia is not as thoroughly documented as it is for EuropeÃ¢â¬âhowever, the Black Death does appear in records from across Asia in the 1330s and 1340s noting that the disease spread terror and destruction wherever it arose. Origins of the Black Death Many scholars believe that the bubonic plague began in northwestern China, while others cite southwestern China or the steppes of Central Asia. We do know that in 1331 an outbreak erupted in the Yuan EmpireÃ and may have hastened the end of Mongol rule over China. Three years later, the disease killed over 90 percent of the Hebei Provinces population with deaths totaling over 5 million people. As of 1200, China had a total population of more than 120 million, but a 1393 census found only 65 million Chinese surviving. Some of that missing population was killed by famine and upheaval in the transition from Yuan to Ming rule, but many millions died of bubonic plague. From its origin at the eastern end of the Silk Road, the Black Death rode trade routes west stopping at Central Asian caravansaries and Middle Eastern trade centers and subsequently infected people all across Asia. The Egyptian scholar Al-MazriqiÃ noted that more than three hundred tribes all perished without apparent reason in their summer and winter encampments, in the course of pasturing their flocks and during their seasonal migration. He claimed that all of Asia was depopulated, as far as theÃ Korean Peninsula. Ibn al-Wardi, a Syrian writer who would later die of the plague himself in 1348, recorded that the Black Death came out of The Land of Darkness, orÃ Central Asia. From there, it spread to China, India, the Caspian Sea and land of the Uzbeks, and thence to Persia and the Mediterranean. The Black Death Strikes Persia and Issyk Kul The Central Asian scourge struck Persia just a few years after it appeared in ChinaÃ¢â¬âproofÃ if any is needed that the Silk Road was a convenient route of transmission for the deadly bacterium. In 1335, the Il-Khan (Mongol) ruler of Persia and the Middle East, Abu Said, died of bubonic plague during a war with his northern cousins, the Golden Horde. This signaled the beginning of the end for Mongol rule in the region. An estimated 30% of Persias people died of the plague in the mid-14th century. The regions population was slow to recover, in part due to the political disruptions caused by the fall of Mongol rule and the later invasions of Timur (Tamerlane). Archaeological excavations on the shores of Issyk Kul, a lake in what is now Kyrgyzstan, reveal that the Nestorian Christian trading community there was ravaged by bubonic plague in 1338 and 1339. Issyk Kul was a major Silk Road depot and has sometimes been cited as the origin point for the Black Death. It certainly is prime habitat for marmots, which are known to carry a virulent form of the plague. It seems more likely, however, that traders from further east brought diseased fleas with them to the shores of Issyk Kul. Whatever the case, this tiny settlements death rate shot up from a 150-year average of about 4 people per year, to more than 100 dead in two years alone. Although specific numbers and anecdotes are hard to come by, different chronicles note that Central Asian cities like Talas, in modern-day Kyrgyzstan; Sarai, the capital of the Golden Horde in Russia; and Samarkand, now in Uzbekistan, all suffered outbreaks of the Black Death. It is likely that each population center would have lost at least 40 percent of its citizens, with some areas reaching death tolls as high as 70 percent. The Mongols Spread Plague at Kaffa In 1344, the Golden Horde decided to recapture the Crimean port city of Kaffa from the GenoeseÃ¢â¬âItalian traders who had taken the town in the late 1200s. The Mongols under Jani Beg instituted a siege, which lasted until 1347Ã when reinforcements from further east brought the plague to the Mongol lines. An Italian lawyer, Gabriele de Mussis, recorded what happened next: The whole army was affected by a disease which overran the Tartars (Mongols) and killed thousands upon thousands every day. He goes on to charge that the Mongol leader ordered corpses to be placed in catapults and lobbed into the city in hopes that the intolerable stench would kill everyone inside. This incident is often cited as the first instance of biological warfare in history. However, other contemporary chroniclers make no mention of the putative Black Death catapults. A French churchman, Gilles li Muisis, notes that a calamitous disease befell the Tartar army, and the mortality was so great and widespread that scarcely one in twenty of them remained alive. However, he depicts the Mongol survivors as surprised when the Christians in Kaffa also came down with the disease. Regardless of how it played out, the Golden Hordes siege of Kaffa certainly did drive refugees to flee on ships bound for Genoa. These refugees likely were a primary source of the Black Death that went on to decimate Europe. The Plague Reaches the Middle East European observers were fascinated but not too worried when the Black Death struck the western rim of Central Asia and the Middle East. One recorded that India was depopulated; Tartary, Mesopotamia, Syria, Armenia were covered with dead bodies; the Kurds fled in vain to the mountains. However, they would soon become participants rather than observers in the worlds worst pandemic. In The Travels of Ibn Battuta, the great traveler noted that as of 1345, the number that died daily in Damascus (Syria) had been two thousand, but the people were able to defeat the plague through prayer. In 1349, the holy city of Mecca was hit by the plague, likely brought in by infected pilgrims on the hajj. The Moroccan historian Ibn Khaldun, whose parents died of the plague, wrote about the outbreak this way: Civilization both in the East and the West was visited by a destructive plague which devastated nations and caused populations to vanish. It swallowed up many of the good things of civilization and wiped them out... Civilization decreased with the decrease of mankind. Cities and buildings were laid waste, roads and way signs were obliterated, settlements and mansions became empty, dynasties and tribes grew weak. The entire inhabited world changed. More Recent Asian Plague Outbreaks In 1855, the so-called Third Pandemic of bubonic plague broke out in Yunnan Province, China. Another outbreakÃ or a continuation of the Third PandemicÃ¢â¬âdepending upon which source you believeÃ¢â¬âsprang up in China in 1910. It went on to kill more than 10 million, many of them in Manchuria. A similar outbreak in British India left about 300,000 dead from 1896 through 1898. This outbreak began in Bombay (Mumbai) and Pune, on the countrys west coast. By 1921, it would claim some 15 million lives. With dense human populations and natural plague reservoirs (rats and marmots), Asia is always at risk of another round of bubonic plague. Fortunately, the timely use of antibiotics can cure the disease today. Legacy of the Plague in Asia Perhaps the most significant impact that the Black Death had on Asia was that it contributed to the fall of the mighty Mongol Empire. After all, the pandemic started within the Mongol Empire and devastated peoples from all four of the khanates. The massive population loss and terror caused by the plague destabilized Mongolian governments from the Golden Horde in Russia to the Yuan Dynasty in China. The Mongol ruler of the Ilkhanate Empire in the Middle East died of the disease along with six of his sons. Although the Pax Mongolica had allowed increased wealth and cultural exchange, through a reopening of the Silk Road, it also allowed this deadly contagion to spread rapidly westward from its origin in western China or eastern Central Asia. As a result, the worlds second-largest empire ever crumbled and fell.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Essays on Theodore Roosevelt and the Rise of Imperialism Essay The paper "Theodore Roosevelt and the Rise of Imperialism" is an outstanding example of a history essay. He is certainly one of the greatest American presidents that ever lived, Theodore Roosevelt; the twenty-sixth president of the United States of America recorded several landmarks during his reign as the president and wrote his name in gold in the annals of the American history. Roosevelt made ground-breaking policies locally and internationally. In carrying out his domestic policies, President Roosevelt reassured the average citizen of the USA that they would get a just treatment in his government and his foreign policies were targeted at promoting the integrity of America and improving the lives of the citizens of other countries. He was known for using this statement Ã¢â¬ËSpeak softly and carry a big stickÃ¢â¬â¢, which could be simply explained as little and meaningful actions, would definitely yield good results and this happened as Roosevelt recorded tremendous success during his eight-year reign as the president (Roosevelt).Locally, he promoted the health of American citizens by signing The Pure Food and Drug Act and The Meat Inspection Act of 1906 into law. These laws helped ban the sales and manufacture of Food, Drug and Meat products that had deceptive labels and poisonous preservatives. One of RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policies led to the cons truction of the Panama Canal as he negotiated with the United States Congress over the decision to build the canal in Panama instead of Nicaragua. Roosevelt issued an addendum to the Monroe Doctrine; a policy that made the US come to the aid of smaller countries in solving their financial problems. He also helped to bring an end to the Russo-Japanese war and won a Nobel Laureate for Peace for his efforts (Roosevelt).After losing a reelection campaign in 1912, Roosevelt traveled to South America and was infected with malaria on the trip and he died as a result of the disease in 1919 at the of 60.Imperial states in Europe tried to expand their frontiers as they sought to be in command of the trade of their colonies. In the late 19th century, Europe increased its imperialism by annexing overseas territories and this extended into Asia, Africa and the Pacific (Hobson).The European powers started this wave of expansion mainly for economic gains in order to export the excess capital of th e capitalist economies of these countries. The rise of Imperialism also was also driven by political and ideological motives. The main reason the United States of America was also involved in imperialism during the late 19th century was also due to the fact that they wanted to have an economic and political influence on the world. The US joined the imperialism frenzy in reaction to the impact the European imperialism already had on the world. They wanted to ensure that their futures were secured politically and economically, hence their decision to join the league of imperialists.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
My Trip to Africa Essay As summer came closer and school was closing, I was planning my summer vacation until my mother had to ruin it by telling us we were going to Africa. I was terrified and, my brothers wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop talking cause they were to excited. As the days where getting closer I been thinking about all the negative things that could happen while I was there, we packed everything we would need for the trip. The next morning we got up early and got dressed, then my aunt took us to the airport as we said our goodbyes, my stomach started to hurt and I felt sick as we got on the plane. As our plane landed all I could see was green all around and trees, bushes, and tall grass. I thought we where in the wilderness. The moment we got off the plane we had to wait for our suitcase which took an hour. I was tired, hungry and wanted to sleep but that wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to happen cause everyone were waiting to see us. The car trip was quiet long but once we arrived at the place we were staying.. After getting to know everyone they were all so nice and friendly. Then sun started to set, I was quiet surprised cause it was hot weather over there and the sun will set at 6pm, which made everyone go to bed early. The morning after we arrived and where settled in, we went on a drive around town. It was very interesting seeing goats and other animals with out their owners just wondering around town. Anyway I took over hundreds of pictures just in an hour. Later that day we went to go eat at a restaurant the food there was delicious. I was quiet surprise that there where pizza stores in Africa. After our big meal we went on a safari, we saw lions, giraffes, and camels. The giraffes were very tall and pretty. Later on our tour guide ask us if we want to ride a camel, I was scared but It sound fun so I tried it for the first time in life. It was such an amazing experience and an amazing day. This was the perfect trip. The flight home was long and. It was sad to leave but I missed my friends and was quiet happy to go back. On our flight back to Toronto we had to stop in Ethiopia to change our plane. After waiting for a while they told us to get in line. I was happy when we reach the front. Until they told me I donÃ¢â¬â¢t look like my picture on the passport, I tried telling them I lost a lot of weight but they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe so I got stuck there for five days with out clothing, food and only a hundred dollar bill. I was so terrified and there food was expensive and to make a phone call I had to pay three dollars for one minute. After being there for days hungry and cold they told me how they got in touch with the Canadian nimbus and I was going home on the next flight home. In the end I learned a lot of new stuff and meet new people. I thought Africa would be a horrible experience but it turned out to be great. I hope my parents would take us again. I think everyone should travel to Africa if they get a chance in there life. I had an amazing time and hope others would go.
Sunday, April 12, 2020
World civilizations 1500 March 17, 1999 1. Essay form (7%) 2. Tenochtitlan case study (10%) 3. Mozambique case study (13%) 4. Comparison of Tenochtitlan and Mozambique cases (15%) 5. Summary of the gun powder arguments in Stearns (35%) 6. Discussion and critique of gun powder arguments in the light of the Tenochtitlan and Mozambique case studies (20%) In the past wars were fought to gain land, wealth, and fame. Two such examples of this are the battle of Tenochtitlan and Mozambique. These are two battles that disprove the gun powder superiority theory. Certain countries look to get an advantage, by incorporating such things as guns, canons, and steel armor. Some countries look to gain an advantage through superior numbers. Several Army leaders simply believed they were superior to their adversaries. Such as the case in Tenochtitlan. The purpose for the invasion of Mexico is not clear however, has stated above it is usually for power, land, or money. In this case Cortes was looking for gold that he hoped he could take from a primitive people. In April 1521Cortes had reached Tenochtitlan. This would mark the beginning of the battle between the Spanish and the Aztec. Before the Spanish arrived in Mexico, a sickness broke out. This epidemic was small pox. Small pox decimated villages. Small pox caused blemishes on people faces, it caused their bodies to become stiff, and made some people unable to move. "And when things were in this state, the Spaniards came..." (Sources, 70 L.). Twelve Spanish boats had come, traveling the coast and looking for places to land. The Spanish managed to get two boats in. It is documented that these boats came in fighting. "There were deaths on both sides, and on both sides captives were taken." (Sources, 70 L.). It is recorded that at the first sight of the Spaniards the natives ran. W ith the village emptied the Spaniards took as they pleased. As the Spaniards continued they came to a place where the fortress was well fortified. This presented no obstacle as they used their canons to blast down the wall. "and the fourth time finally the wall went to the ground once and for all..." (sources, 70 L.) Once inside, the Tzilacatzin and some other warriors went out to face the oncoming Spaniards. These warriors used nothing more than stones repeal the oncoming Spanish. This sent the Spaniards retreating. Some of these warriors hid in the dense brush, and as the Spaniards came through the warriors ambush them. The Spaniards had come with gunpowder and guns and when ambushed these guns did not help. The selection is not specific but I don't believe the Aztec had guns of any kind. "Then he went and threw a Spaniard down, knocking him to the ground..." (Sources 71 L.). The captives were taken to Yacacolca and sacrificed. Spanish first and all other second. The heads were h ung on skull racks facing the East. The Aztec won this battle but it would be short-lived. The second example is the battle in Mozambique. This is similar to the previously described battle in that the natives seemed fearful at first, and retaliated to win the battle. The Portuguese arrived in the rivers of Cuama in the year 1593. Dom Pedro de Sousa led them. This battle was a retaliation of an earlier battle in which the Zimba had killed one of the Portuguese priests. Dom Pedro de Sousa obtained information about his enemy and quickly raised an army. "... 200 Portuguese and 1500 Kaffirs..." (sources, 65 L.) He also took various pieces of artillery, which he wanted to use on the walls. When this failed he was determined to enter by assault. He had part of the trench filled, through which several of his soldiers were wounded by the arrows being shot from above. The natives also used boiling fat and water, which they poured on the attackers and scalded them. They also used iron hooks, which they would stick through the holes of the wall and grab anyone who came too close and wounded them mortally. Following this encounter the captain ordered his men back to camp so they could rest and tend to the wounded. The captain had an idea that would put his men on World Civilizations 1500 Essays - Mesoamerica, Fall Of Tenochtitlan World civilizations 1500 March 17, 1999 1. Essay form (7%) 2. Tenochtitlan case study (10%) 3. Mozambique case study (13%) 4. Comparison of Tenochtitlan and Mozambique cases (15%) 5. Summary of the gun powder arguments in Stearns (35%) 6. Discussion and critique of gun powder arguments in the light of the Tenochtitlan and Mozambique case studies (20%) In the past wars were fought to gain land, wealth, and fame. Two such examples of this are the battle of Tenochtitlan and Mozambique. These are two battles that disprove the gun powder superiority theory. Certain countries look to get an advantage, by incorporating such things as guns, canons, and steel armor. Some countries look to gain an advantage through superior numbers. Several Army leaders simply believed they were superior to their adversaries. Such as the case in Tenochtitlan. The purpose for the invasion of Mexico is not clear however, has stated above it is usually for power, land, or money. In this case Cortes was looking for gold that he hoped he could take from a primitive people. In April 1521Cortes had reached Tenochtitlan. This would mark the beginning of the battle between the Spanish and the Aztec. Before the Spanish arrived in Mexico, a sickness broke out. This epidemic was small pox. Small pox decimated villages. Small pox caused blemishes on people faces, it caused their bodies to become stiff, and made some people unable to move. "And when things were in this state, the Spaniards came..." (Sources, 70 L.). Twelve Spanish boats had come, traveling the coast and looking for places to land. The Spanish managed to get two boats in. It is documented that these boats came in fighting. "There were deaths on both sides, and on both sides captives were taken." (Sources, 70 L.). It is recorded that at the first sight of the Spaniards the natives ran. W ith the village emptied the Spaniards took as they pleased. As the Spaniards continued they came to a place where the fortress was well fortified. This presented no obstacle as they used their canons to blast down the wall. "and the fourth time finally the wall went to the ground once and for all..." (sources, 70 L.) Once inside, the Tzilacatzin and some other warriors went out to face the oncoming Spaniards. These warriors used nothing more than stones repeal the oncoming Spanish. This sent the Spaniards retreating. Some of these warriors hid in the dense brush, and as the Spaniards came through the warriors ambush them. The Spaniards had come with gunpowder and guns and when ambushed these guns did not help. The selection is not specific but I don't believe the Aztec had guns of any kind. "Then he went and threw a Spaniard down, knocking him to the ground..." (Sources 71 L.). The captives were taken to Yacacolca and sacrificed. Spanish first and all other second. The heads were h ung on skull racks facing the East. The Aztec won this battle but it would be short-lived. The second example is the battle in Mozambique. This is similar to the previously described battle in that the natives seemed fearful at first, and retaliated to win the battle. The Portuguese arrived in the rivers of Cuama in the year 1593. Dom Pedro de Sousa led them. This battle was a retaliation of an earlier battle in which the Zimba had killed one of the Portuguese priests. Dom Pedro de Sousa obtained information about his enemy and quickly raised an army. "... 200 Portuguese and 1500 Kaffirs..." (sources, 65 L.) He also took various pieces of artillery, which he wanted to use on the walls. When this failed he was determined to enter by assault. He had part of the trench filled, through which several of his soldiers were wounded by the arrows being shot from above. The natives also used boiling fat and water, which they poured on the attackers and scalded them. They also used iron hooks, which they would stick through the holes of the wall and grab anyone who came too close and wounded them mortally. Following this encounter the captain ordered his men back to camp so they could rest and tend to the wounded. The captain had an idea that would put his men on
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
5 Widespread Myths About Interracial Relationships Interracial couples, marriages, and relationships are more common today than ever before in the United States. Marriages between people of different races reached a record high of 8.4 percent in 2010, according to the New York Times. Despite the rising rate of interracial marriage, mixed-race couples not only continue to face scrutiny and disapproval but sweeping generalizations from outsiders. Individuals in interracial relationships often are accused of entering such unions for less than honorable reasons. This review of the myths that shroud interracial couples indicate that romance across the color line remains a source of stigma. Interracial Means Black And White Arguably the biggest myth about interracial couples is that such pairings always involve a white person and a person of color. Interracial couples consisting of two people who belong to racial minority groups are largely overlooked in the mainstream culture. This is likely because discussions of race in general still are based on a black-white paradigm. Nonetheless, interracial couples of color have been the inspiration for films such as Ã¢â¬Å"Mississippi Masala,Ã¢â¬ in which Denzel Washington plays a character who falls in love with a South Asian woman. Moreover, the comedy Ã¢â¬Å"Harold Kumar Go to White CastleÃ¢â¬ paired the Korean-American protagonist up with a Latina love interest. Of course, a number of such couples exist in real life as well. Famous examples of interracial couples of color include musician Carlos Santana and his wife, Cindy Blackman, an African American; and Wesley Snipes and his wife, Nakyung Park, a Korean American. As the United States grows more diverse, interracial couples of color will only grow more common. Accordingly, discussion of interracial relationships should include pairings of Asian Americans and African Americans, Hispanic Americans and Arab Americans, and so forth. People in Interracial Relationships Never Date Their Own Race Strangers often assume that people in interracial relationships have long dated exclusively outside of their race. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s undeniable that some people display strong preferences for a particular race. Indian-American actress Mindy Kaling, for example, essentially told Us Magazine that she favors white men.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"I embarrassingly love blond men - hot pinups like Chris Evans and Chris Pine,Ã¢â¬ she said. Ã¢â¬Å"I feel like people expect me to have an edgy choice, like Justin Theroux, and IÃ¢â¬â¢m just like, Ã¢â¬ËNope! I want Captain America!Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ In addition, Kaling has been called out for casting solely white men as her love interests on her show Ã¢â¬Å"The Mindy Project.Ã¢â¬ Unlike Mindy Kaling, however, many people in interracial relationships donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a type. They have dated both intra-racially and interracially and just happened to end up with partners who donÃ¢â¬â¢t share their ethnic background. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a pattern of choosing solely white mates or solely Asian mates or Hispanic ones. Singer Rihanna,Ã journalist Lisa Ling and actor Eddie Murphy are all examples of people whove dated both within and outside of their racial group.Ã Ã If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know the dating history of a person in an interracial relationship, donÃ¢â¬â¢t assume that they have no interest in dating members of their own race. Unless youÃ¢â¬â¢re interested in dating the person in question, however, ask yourself why you care whom this person dates. If the person has bought into the idea that some racial groups are more desirable than others and date such people because they consider them to be Ã¢â¬Å"catchesÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"trophies,Ã¢â¬ thereÃ¢â¬â¢s little you can do to change their mindset anyway. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ll likely excuse their dating patterns as being simple Ã¢â¬Å"preferencesÃ¢â¬ rather than examine how our racially stratified society has influenced them to find some racial groups more appealing than others. Minorities in Interracial Romances Hate Themselves People of color who date interracially are often accused of suffering from self-hatred. While some minorities date whites in particular for social status, many minorities who date across the color line are proud of their heritage. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re not dating interracially to dilute their bloodlines. They simply felt a spark with someone who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t share their racial background. This doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t identify with their minority group and are ashamed to be part of that group. A number of African Americans who married interracially have fiercely fought for civil rights and the uplift of their racial group, including the abolitionist Frederick Douglass, playwright Lorraine Hansberry, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall and actor-singer Harry Belafonte. Whites in Interracial Marriages Are Rebelling While minorities in interracial relationships are often accused of hating themselves, whites in such relationships are often accused of rebelling. They didnÃ¢â¬â¢t marry interracially because they truly loved their spouse, outsiders say, but because they wanted to get back at their parents. Are there white people who bring home a person of another race because they know it will drive their parents crazy? Probably. But itÃ¢â¬â¢s unlikely that these people would have a sustained relationship with someone of a different race just to spite their parents, let alone marry interracially to do so.Ã Ã Minorities in Interracial Relationships Date Down ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a common belief that people of color in interracial relationships, especially with whites, date down rather than up. In other words, their partners arenÃ¢â¬â¢t particularly attractive, moneyed or educated. They are not dating Ã¢â¬Å"catches.Ã¢â¬ The rationale here is that whites enjoy so much privilege in society that minorities who pursue romances with them arenÃ¢â¬â¢t exactly picky. Any white person will do. This, of course, is a sweeping generalization. Unless the only criterion a person has in a mate is that she be white, itÃ¢â¬â¢s doubtful that this generalization applies. Rosie Cuison Villazor, a law professor and editor of Loving v. Virginia in a Post-Racial World, has found that the income of interracial couples tends to vary by the racial makeup of the couple. Ã¢â¬Å"Forty-two percent of white men/Asian women married couples both went to college, compared with 20 percent of white/Hispanic married couples and 17 percent of white/black married couples,Ã¢â¬ she found. Ã¢â¬Å"A look at earnings also reveals racial and gender differences: the median combined income of white/Asian couples is $70,952, compared with $53,187 for white/black married couples.Ã¢â¬ The fact that black-white couples earn less than white-Asian couples reflects the fact that blacks generally earn less than whites in the United States, while Asians tend to earn as much or more money than whites. Given this and the fact people of all races are more likely to romance those who share their economic and education background, itÃ¢â¬â¢s inaccurate to suggest that minorities in interracial relationships marry or date down. Sources Maillard, Kevin Noble. Loving vs. Virginia in a Post-Racial World. Rose Cuison Villazor (Editor), Cambridge University Press, May 16, 2012. Villazor, Rose Cuison. Marrying Across Racial Lines, but Still Seeing Lines. The New York Times, November 17, 2014.
Sunday, February 23, 2020
The Hero's Journey - The Mythological Structure of Films - Research Paper Example For purposes of clarity, the heroes journey will be herein defined to exhibit the following 12 traits: 1)the heroes are introduced in the ordinary world, 2) they receive the call to action or adventure, 3) they are reluctant at first or refuse the call, 4) they are encouraged by a mentor, 5) they cross the threshold and enter the Ã¢â¬Å"special worldÃ¢â¬ , 6) the encounter a series of tests, allies and enemies 7) they approach the in-most cave and cross a second threshold, 8) within this second cave they endure the ordeal, 9) they take possession of their reward, 10) they are pursued on the road back to the ordinary world, 11)they cross the third threshold and experience a resurrection/transformation, 12) they return with the elixir or treasure to benefit the ordinary world (Vogler 2). In this way, Volger sets out to express that the way in which a screenwriter interacts with his chosen topic, works to force it into a reality, and hones the acumen of its message follows precisely t he same steps as that the heroes journey represents. What is particularly interesting about this Ã¢â¬Å"mythologicalÃ¢â¬ approach to any given subject matter is that it nearly perfectly applies to the way that almost every story can be told. The author begins by recounting how the Ã¢â¬Å"ordinary worldÃ¢â¬ presents the known reality and easy confines within which the actor(s) will develop. In this way, the hero is presented as an entity that is uncomfortable and/or unaware of the underlying tension and struggle that brews beneath the surface. This develops the actor into the secondary stage or Ã¢â¬Å"call to adventureÃ¢â¬ . This call to adventure is the impetus and or need that is exhibited by the deficiencies of the Ã¢â¬Å"ordinary worldÃ¢â¬ . As a result of this imperfection this Ã¢â¬Å"call to adventureÃ¢â¬ exists as a means to answer this inequality. An interesting component of this call to adventure/action is the fact that the protagonist/character/actor is oftentimes reticent to heed its direction. This